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What You Need To Know About The Swine Flu Detected In Canada There are 2 replies:
What You Need To Know About The Swine Flu Detected In Canada Original post: Sat 11/7/2020 at 11:05 PM

What You Need To Know About The Swine Flu Detected In Canada

For good reason — the raging global pandemic of Covid-19 — public sensitivity to the detection of new pathogens is at an all-time high. Earlier this week, Canadian officials reported that a variant of the influenza virus that normally infects pigs, a virus known as Influenza A (H1N2)v, was detected in a person in Alberta. Although novel influenza viruses are indeed something to be wary of, this event is not a cause for alarm.

As I’ve written about concerning “one health”, people and animals often swap pathogens back and forth — especially viruses. We don’t yet have the details about this specific virus (we need a genetic analysis for that), but we do understand a lot about influenza viruses in general.

To put this new discovery in context, it is helpful to know some things about the biology and ecology of influenza viruses.

At a broad level (the level of genus), influenza viruses are classified into four groups known as Influenza A, Influenza B, Influenza C, and Influenza D. Influenza A viruses are the most numerous and affect a wide range of species including humans, birds, horses, dogs, pigs, and others. The virus detected in Alberta is an Influenza A virus. Influenza B viruses affect humans and seals. Influenza C viruses affect humans and pigs. Influenza D viruses affect pigs and cattle.

The genomes of Influenza A and Influenza B contain 8 segments, which code for the various proteins that make up the virus, while Influenza C and Influenza D each have 7 segments. A schematic of the Influenza A virus is shown below.


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In the diagram, two of the proteins are shown to protrude through the surface of the virus particle. These are hemagglutinin, designated HA, and neuraminidase, designated NA. From the virus’s point of view, the HA and NA genes are important because they allow the virus to get into and out of the host’s cells, which is essential for the virus to replicate and spread. From the host’s point of view, these proteins are important because they can be recognized by the immune system, which allows virus particles in the host to be targeted and destroyed.

The HA and NA genes are quite variable, and each is represented by a large number of variants known as sub-types, which of course may be found in different combinations. To date, scientists have described 18 different HA subtypes and 11 different NA subtypes within Influenza A, which are also used to name the various viruses. Thus, the virus named H3N2 (a relatively common influenza virus of humans) expresses the third HA subtype and the second NA subtype. Since the 2009 flu pandemic, the most common human influenza A virus has been H1N1, meaning that it combines the first HA subtype with the first NA subtype. Of course, many other subtype combinations are possible (although not all have been found to exist), and most are found in birds. The results of one recent study showing this diversity are shown in the following figure.

Among the Influenza A viruses, three different hemagglutinin subtypes have sometimes been found to be lethal in people. The most well known of these is H5N1. But not all H5’s are highly pathogenic. Besides N1, H5 also combines with N2, N3, N4, N5, N6, N7, N8, and N9, which are typically not highly pathogenic (although there is a pathogenic variant of H5N6). Even among H5N1 viruses, highly pathogenic variants are not common, depending on specific genetic variations found in the HA, NS, and PB1 genes.

Besides H5N1, a variant of H7N9 has also been found to be highly pathogenic. Twenty-four out of 126 people died in the first outbreak of H7N9 in China in 2013. Subsequent outbreaks have been linked to live bird markets and it appears that people almost exclusively catch H7N9 from birds, rather than from other infected people. Subsequent outbreaks occurred in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016.

Since it is an H1, it is exceedingly unlikely that the virus detected this week in Alberta is highly pathogenic. Moreover, it is quite unlikely to spread in people, because it is a virus strain that is adapted to replicating in pigs. Indeed, more likely than not, pigs initially caught this virus strain from humans and have been circulating it among themselves ever since.

Even though the swine variant of H1N2 discovered in Canada this week is extremely unlikely to cause a pandemic, there are still two reasons to be watchful about influenza viruses from pigs that are detected in people.

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Re: What You Need To Know About The Swine Flu Detected In Canada Posted: Sat 7/31/2021 at 12:04 PM, in reply to guest guest


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Fjallraven Kånken – 十大知識點 Posted: Mon 10/25/2021 at 8:26 PM, in reply to guest guest

FACT #01 – 誕生於1978年的Kånken背包

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #01 – 誕生於1978年的Kånken背包

Fjallraven和瑞典童軍總會(Swedish Guide and Scout Association)協力合作,於1978年推出Kånken背包,超過35個年頭,Kånken背包讓數百萬人得以抬頭挺胸,是Fjällräven最熱賣的商品之一。

在當時,單肩背包在瑞典相當受歡迎,但同時有近八成的使用者表示在放置較多東西的時候,背包常常因此變形而加重負擔,造成脊椎傷害。而Kånken的問世的原因正是因為如此, Fjällräven的創立者Åke Nordin用四本瑞典電話簿的大小作為模型,製成四方的背包,方便學生攜帶書本和資料夾,而直立式重力分擔設計,同時也防止荷重變形及肩背的不當受力,造福了學生和後背包的使用族群。(Kånken包是Fjällräven的經典商品,以中文諧音,Kånken發音為「空肯」,是從是瑞典文 “kånka”「攜帶」衍生而來的。)

FACT #02 – 從幼兒包到電腦包,讓你加入Kånken Family的9種選擇

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #02 – 從幼兒包到電腦包,讓你加入Kånken Family的9種選擇

從最原汁原味的經典款,至今全系列已經有9種的規格可做選擇:針對100cm以下的幼童推出的Kånken Kids;受到小朋友和女生喜好的輕巧小包Kanken Mini;保留經典設計,也是人氣最高的Kanken Classic;符合大容量需求的Kånken Big;唯一有擴充空間的進階大包款Kånken Maxi;受到筆電使用族群喜好的Kånken Laptop (共13、15、17吋三種規格);採用Fjällräven獨家機能布料G1000打造的Kånken No.2。無論年幼老少,高矮胖瘦,都可以找到適合自己的那一咖Kånken喔!

FACT #03 – 每季高達30多種顏色可選擇,成為最繽紛的困擾

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #03 – 每季高達30多種顏色可選擇,成為最繽紛的困擾

以最受歡迎的中小型包款Kånken Mini和Kånken Classic來說,每一季都將近有30多色可以選擇,假如你今天想要買一個藍色的Kånken,你大約還會有4-5種藍色可以讓你慢慢傷腦筋。除此之外,每年Fjällräven都會推出新的配色(當然,也會有顏色斷貨),30多色的陣容總是常保新鮮感與驚喜。什麼?!好難選~沒錯,這是眾多人粉絲朋友們最繽紛的困擾啦!

FACT #04 – Kånken 輕量、耐用、防潑水的秘密 – Vinylon F

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #04 – Kånken 輕量、耐用、防潑水的秘密 – Vinylon F

Kånken由機能性人工纖維Vinylon F所製成,兼具輕巧與耐用,像天然纖維一樣,吸水之後自然膨脹,不需經任何特別處理即能達到防潑水的效果(不是完全防水喔);耐用度的部分,經破壞性耐用測試結果顯示,Vinylon F耐用指數大約是一般背包面料的兩倍;而「輕量」到底有多輕,以中型的Kånken Classic來說,淨重僅有300多克,比一杯珍珠奶茶還要輕呢。

FACT #05 – 反光圓標LOGO,夜間行走安全UP

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #05 – 反光圓標LOGO,夜間行走安全UP


FACT #06 – Puller Tab,讓開闔拉鍊更加順手的小幫手

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #06 – Puller Tab,讓開闔拉鍊更加順手的小幫手

也許你有發現,Kånken背包的下緣兩側都各有縫有一小段織帶,所以它是什麼用途呢?!沒錯,在開闔背包的時候,Puller Tab它可以成為良好的施力點,讓拉鍊保持平整的狀態,使得操作更加順手。走極簡路線的Kånken,小巧思可是沒有在馬虎的喔~

FACT #07 – 一體成形的背帶,讓Kånken背起來更加舒適的小秘密

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #07 – 一體成形的背帶,讓Kånken背起來更加舒適的小秘密


FACT #08 – Seat Pad,席地而坐不怕弄髒褲子

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #08 – Seat Pad,席地而坐不怕弄髒褲子


FACT #09 – 越背越有韻味的Kånken

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #09 – 越背越有韻味的Kånken


FACT #10 – 每年一款的Save The Arctic Fox Kånken,長期捐助北極狐保育計畫

Fjallraven Kanken 介紹 | 關於Fjallraven Kånken - FACT #10 – 每年一款的Save The Arctic Fox Kånken,長期捐助北極狐保育計畫


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